Advanced Steel Construction

Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 13-25 (2008)



 A. Machowski 1 and I. Tylek 2,

*1 Assoc. Prof. D. Sc. Ph. D., Faculty of Civil Engineering,

Cracow University of Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Cracow, Poland

2 M. Sc., Faculty of Civil Engineering,

Cracow University of Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Cracow, Poland

* (Corresponding author: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Received: 17 October 2006; Revised: 2 May 2007; Accepted: 22 June 2007




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  Bases of four different conceptions of the equivalent initial tilt utilized in elastic and post-elastic analyses of steel frames are under consideration. It turns out that conception and value of equivalent initial tilt depend on method of analysis and limit state conception. Reduction of initial tilt depending on number of columns per story is motivated if statistically based stationary gaussian random noise model of initial column tilt and bar-disk mechanical model of skeletal structure are applied.




Steel frames, equivalent imperfection



[1]      ECCS 1974, European Specifications for Steel Structures, 1st Ed., 1974.

[2]      ECCS 1984, Eurocode 3, Design of Steel Structures, 1984.

[3]      PKNMiJ 1990, PN-90/B-03200, Steel Structures, Design Rules (in Polish), 1990.

[4]      CEN 1990, CEN/TC 250, Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures, Part 1.1. General Rules and Rules for Buildings, 1990.

[5]      Beaulieu, D. and Adams, P.F.,. “Significance of Structural Out-of-plumb Forces and Recommendations for Design”, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 1980, Vol. 7, pp.105-113.

[6]      Machowski, A., “Problems of Limit States and Reliability of Steel Multistory Building Frames” (in Polish), Politechnika Krakowska, Monografia 262, Seria Inżynieria Lądowa, 1999.

[7]      Machowski, A. and Tylek, I., “The Equivalent Imperfection Concepts of Steel Frame” (in Polish), L Konferencja KILiW PAN i KN PZiTB Krynica 2004a, Tom II, pp. 269-276.

[8]      Machowski, A., “Initial Random Out-of-plumbs of Steel Frame Columns”, Archives of Civil Engineering, 2002, XLVIII, Vol. 2, pp. 205-226.

[9]      Machowski, A. and Tylek, I., “Application of bar-disk Systems in Analysis of Steel Frames” (in Polish), Czasopismo Techniczne, Politechnika Krakowska, 2004b, Budownictwo, Zeszyt Vol. 11, pp. 59-80.