Advanced Steel Construction

Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 309-333 (2013)




Weiwei Lin 1 and Teruhiko Yoda 2,*

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan

2 Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan

*(Corresponding author: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Received: 24 March 2012; Revised: 10 July 2012; Accepted: 13 July 2012




View Article   Export Citation: Plain Text | RIS | Endnote


In continuous steel-concrete composite structures, cracking of the concrete slab in the hogging bending moment region decreases the global stiffness of composite structures and reduces the effect of continuity, resulting in making the structural behaviors highly nonlinear even for low stress levels. Because of this, special consideration is necessary. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of rubber-latex mortar and different types of shear connectors on inelastic behaviour of composite girders subjected to hogging moment. Two overturned simply supported steel-concrete composite girders with different shear connectors such as Studs and Perfo-Bond Strips (PBLs) were tested under concentrated load in the mid-span. Based on the experimental observations, a three-dimensional FE model capable of analyzing the composite beams subjected to negative bending moment was built. Strength and load bearing capacity, sectional strain distribution and movement of composite neutral axis before and after cracking were observed in the test and compared with the numerical results, and the results predicted by this modeling method are in good agreement with those obtained from the tests. Research results indicate that the PBL connectors could slightly improve the rigidity of the composite girder under both the serviceability limit state and the ultimate limit state, while Stud specimens have relatively better mechanical behavior in regard to the initial crack and the “crack closure” of the test specimens. Besides, research results indicate that the current specifications such as AASHTO, JSCE, and EUROCODE-4 can provide appropriate values for ultimate strength of a composite girder under negative bending moment. Moreover, noise reduction, shear stud stiffness increase and the adhesion bonding effect of rubber-latex mortar on interface slip were confirmed in the tests.



Steel-concrete composite girder, hogging moment, rubber-latex mortar coating, studs, PBLs


[1] Manfredi, G., Fabbrocino, G. and Cosenza, E., “Modeling of Steel-concrete Composite Beams under Negative Bending”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, 1996, Vol. 125, No. 6, pp. 654-662.

[2] Ryu, H.K, Chang, S.P., Kim, Y.J. and Kim, B.S., “Crack Control of a Steel and Concrete Composite Plate Girder with Prefabricated Slabs under Hogging Moments”, Engineering Structures, 2005, Vol. 27, No. 11, pp. 1613-1624.

[3] Ryu, H.K., Kim, Y.J. and Chang, S.P., “Crack Control of a Continuous Composite Two-girder Bridge with Prefabricated Slabs under Static and Fatigue Loads”, Engineering Structures, 2007, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 851-864.

[4] He, J., Liu, Y., Chen, A. and Yoda, T., “Experimental Study on Inelastic Mechanical Behaviour of Composite Girders under Hogging Moment”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2010, Vol. 66, No. 1, pp. 37-52.

[5] Chen, S. and Jia, Y., “Required and Available Moment Redistribution of Continuous Steel–concrete Composite Beams”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2008, Vol. 64, No. 2, pp. 167-175.

[6] Chen, S., Jia, Y. and Wang, X., “Experimental Study of Moment Redistribution and Load Carrying Capacity of Externally Prestressed Continuous Composite Beams”, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 2009, Vol. 31, No. 5, pp. 605-619.

[7] Fan, J., Nie, J., Li, Q. and Wang, H., “Long-Term Behavior of Composite Beams under Positive and Negative Bending. I : Experimental Study”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 2010, Vol. 136, No. 7, pp. 849-857.

[8] Fabbrocino, G., Manfredi, G., and Cosenza, E., “Analysis of Continuous Composite Beams including Partial Interaction and Bond”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 2000, Vol. 126, No. 11, pp. 1288-1294.

[9] Nie, J., Fan, J. and Cai, S., “Stiffness and Deflection of Steel–Concrete Composite Beams under Negative Bending”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 2004, Vol. 130, No. 11, pp.1842-1851.

[10] Loh, H.Y., Uy, B. and Bradford, M.A., “The Effects of Partial Shear Connection in the Hogging Moment Regions of Composite Beams Part II—Analytical Study”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2004, Vol. 60, No. 6, pp. 921-962.

[11] Nguyen, Q.H., Hjiaj, M., Uy, B. and Guezouli, S., “Analysis of Composite Beams in the Hogging Moment Regions using a Mixed Finite Element Formulation”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2009, Vol. 65, No. 3, pp. 737-748.

[12] Lin, W. and Yoda, T., “Inelastic Behavior of Continuous Steel-Concrete Composite Beams with Gum-Latex Mortar Coating”, Proceedings of the 2011 World Congress on Advances in Structural Engineering and Mechanics (ASEM+), 2011, pp. 5451-5459.

[13] Lin, W., Yoda, T., Taniguchi, T. and Hansaka, M. “Performance of Strengthened Hybrid Structures Renovated from Old Railway Steel Bridges.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2013, Vol. 85, pp. 130-139.

[14] Taniguchi, N., Hansaka, M., Koide, N., Ogaki, K., Okubo, F. and Saeki, T., “Study of the Hybrid Structures changed from the Steel Bridges for Railroad which Considered Construction”, Journal of Structural Engineering, JSCE, 2011, Vol. 57A, pp. 1052-1059. [in Japanese].

[15] Japan Society of Civil Engineers, “Standard Specifications for Steel and Composite Structures 2007”, 2007, pp.250-259.

[16] Taniguchi, N. and Ikeda, M., “Experimental Study on a Crack Formation for Railway Composite Girders with Negative Bending”, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel and Composite Structures ICSCS07, Manchester, UK, 2007, pp. 915-920.

[17] Hognestad, E., “A Study of Combined Bending and Axial Load in Reinforced Concrete Members”, University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station, Bulletin Series, 1951, No. 399, pp. 40-54.

[18] Park, R. and Paulay, T., “Reinforced Concrete Structures”, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1975, pp.11-36.

[19] Nakasu, M. and Iwatate, J., “Fatigue Experiment on Bond between Concrete and Reinforcement”, Transaction of JSCE, 1996, Vol. 426, pp. 852-853.

[20] Wang, Y. C., “Deflection of Steel-concrete Composite Beams with Partial Shear Interaction”, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1998, Vol. 124, No. 10, pp. 1159–1165.

[21] Ollgaard, J.G., Slutter, R.G. and Fisher, J.W., “Shear Strength of Stud Connectors in Lightweight and Normal Weight Concrete”, Engineering Journal of AISC, 1971, Vol. 8, No.2, pp. 55-64.

[22] Ahna, J., Leeb, C., Wona, J. and Kima, S., “Shear Resistance of the Perfobond-rib Shear Connector Depending on Concrete Strength and Rib Arrangement”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2010, Vol. 66, No. 10, pp. 1295-1307.

[23] Al-Darzi, S.Y.K., Chen, A.R. and Liu, Y.Q., “An Experimental Investigation on Stud and Perfobond Connectors with Push-out test”, Proceeding of the 13th International Conference on Steel and Composite Structures, UK, 2007, pp. 455-462.

[24] Iwasaki, H., Fujii, K., Fukada, K., Toyota, T. and Nakamura, H., “A Consideration on Slip Test Methods for Perfobond Shear Connector Focusing on Concrete Confinements”, 1st International Conference on Advances in Experimental Structural Engineering, 2005. pp. 871-76.

[25] Machacek J, Studnicka J., “Perforated shear connector”, Steel and Composite Structures, 2002, Vol.2, No. 1, pp.51-66.

[26] Medberry SB, Shahrooz BM., “Perfobond shear connector for composite construction”, AISC Journal, 2002, Vol.1, pp.2-12.

[27] Ushijima Y, Hosaka T, Mitsuki K, Watanabe H, Tachibana Y, Hiragi H., “An experimental study on shear characteristics of perfobond strip and its rational strength equations”, International symposium on connections between steel and concrete, 2001, pp.1066-1075.

[28] Valente MIB, Cruz PJS., “Experimental analysis of Perfobond shear connection between steel and lightweight concrete”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2004, Vol.60, pp.465-479.

[29] Okada, J., Yoda, T., and Lebet, J.P., “A study of the grouped arrangement of stud connectors on the shear strength”, Journal of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers, 2004, Vol.766, pp.81-95. [in Japanese].

[30] DÖRR, K., “Ein Beitrag zur Berechnung von Stahlbetonscheiben unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Verbundverhaltens”, PhD thesis, University of Darmstadt, 1980.

[31] AASHTO., “AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications”, Washington, DC, 2007.

[32] Lin, W., and Yoda, T., “Mechanical Behaviour of Composite Girders Subjected to Hogging Moment: Experimental Study”, Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers, 2011, Vol.67, No.3, pp.583-596.

[33] Eurocode 4. Design of composite steel and concrete structures. General rules and rules for buildings, British-Adopted European Standard, 2005.

[34] Ministry of Construction of People's Republic of China, “Code for design of steel structures. GB50017-2003”, China Planning Press, Beijing, 2003. [in Chinese].

[35] CEP-FIP., “Model Code 90, Model Code for Concrete Structures, Comité Euro-International du Béton (CEB) - Fédération Internationale de la Précontrainte (FIP)”, Thomas Telford Ltd., London, UK; 1993.

[36] Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, “Standard specification for railway structures”, Japan, 2009.

[37] Frosch, R.J., “Another Look at Cracking and Crack Control in Reinforced Concrete”, ACI Structural Journal, 1999, Vol.96, No.3, pp.437-442.

[38] Taniguchi, N., Hansaka, M., Koide, N., Ogaki, K., and Saeki, T., “Study of the hybrid structures changed from the steel bridges for railroad which considered construction”, Journal of Structural Engineering, JSCE, 2011, Vol.57A, pp.1052-59. [in Japanese].

[39] Kouzuki, T., Tanahashi, A., Taniguchi, N., Ikariyama, H., Yoda., T., “Experimental study of shear connector for negative bending composite girders with the rubber-latex mortar coating”, Journal of Structural Engineering, JSCE, 2009, Vol.56A: 1161-68. [in Japanese].