Advanced Steel Construction

Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 242-274 (2006)



1Antonio Aguero, 2Carmen Izvernari and Robert Tremblay

1Departmento de mecanica de los medios continuos y teoria de estructuras

ETS de ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Campus Vera s/n,46020 Valencia, Espana, Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

2Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering

Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, Montreal(QC) Canada H3C 3A7




View Article   Export Citation:Plain Text | RIS | Endnote


A study was performed to investigate the possibility of modeling the seismic inelastic cyclic response of steel bracing members using the OpenSees computer program. The study focuses on bracing members made of rectangular and square steel tubes. The efficiency and the accuracy obtained from the foce (FBE) and displacement (DBE) based elements are first compared. A co-rotational framework is used to model the nonlinear geometric behavior, and inelasticity is accounted for through fiber discretization of the cross-section together with bi-linear or Giuffre-Menegotto-pinto hysteretic material response. FBE and DBE models are compared for various combinations of number of elements along the brace length, number of integration points along the element length, number of fibers used to define the cross-section, and amplitude and number of displacement increments. The influence of brace slenderness and displacement protocol on the accuracy of the models is examined. Model predictions are also compared to individual brace and full-scale frame test results. The influence of time step and brace discretization on the dynamic seismic response for a typical braced steel frame is investigated.



Displacement based element; Force based element; Braces; Buckling; Yielding; Gusset plate; Frame; Earthquakes; Seismic


[1]       AISC.2005.AN SI/A ISC 34I-0S, Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings.American Institute of Steel Construction.Chicago, M.

[2]       Astanch-Asl, A., Ciocl, S.C.and Hanson, R.D.1985.Cyclic Out-of-Plane Buckling of Double-Angle Bracing.J.of Struct.Eng..ASCE, III, 1135-1153.

[3]       ASTM.2003.ASTM A500-3, Standard Specification for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes.ASTM International, West Conshohockcn, PA.

[4]       Barbato, M.and Conte, J.P.2004.Finite Element Response Sensitivity Analysis: a Comparison Between Force-Based and Displacement-Based Frame Element Models.Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 194, 1479-1512.

[5]       Chajcs, A.1974.Principles of Structural Stability Theory.Prentice-Hall.Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

[6]       CSA.2001.CSA-S/6-0I, Limit States Design of Steel Structures.Canadian Standards Association, Toronto.ON.

[7]       ECCS.1986.ECCS - TWO 1.3 Seismic Design Recommended Testing Procedure for Assessing the Behaviour of Structural Steel Elements under Cyclic Loads.European Convention for Constructional Steelwork, Technical Committee - Structural safety and loading, Brussels, Belgium.

[8]       Jin, J.and El-Tawil, S.2003.Inelastic Cyclic Model for Steel Braces.J.of Eng.Mech..ASCE, 129,5,548-557.

[9]       Haddad.M.2004.Ph.D.Thesis.Dept, of Civil Eng., Univ.of Calgary, Calgary.AL.

[10]    McKenna.F.and Fenves, (iL.2004.()/>en System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (OpenSees).Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research ('enter (PEER), University of California, Berkeley, C'A.(httn: 7oncnsccs.hcrkclcv.cdui index.html)

[11]    NRCC.2005.National Building Code of Canada./2 ed., National Research Council of Canada.Ottawa, ON.

[12]    Shaback, J.B.and Brown, T.2003.Behaviour of square hollow’ structural steel braces with end connections under reversed cyclic axial loading.Can.J.Civ.Eng., 30.745-753.

[13]    Tremblay, R., Poncet, E., Bolduc, P., Neville, R., and DeVall, R.2004.Testing and Design of Buckling Restrained Braces for Canadian Application.Pnx\ 13th World Conference on Earthquake Eng., Vancouver, BC, Paper no.2893.

[14]    Tremblay, R., Archambault, M.-A., and Filiatrault.A.2003.Seismic Performance of Concentrically Braced Steel Frames made with Rectangular Hollow' Bracing Members.J.of Struct.Eng..ASCE.129:12, 1626-1636.

[15]    Tremblay, R.and Bouatay, N.2002.Loading Protocols for the Seismic Testing of Ductile Bracing Members in Concentrically Braced Steel Frames.Proc.12th Eumpean Conf on Earthquake Eng., London, UK, Paper No.480.

[16]    Uriz, P.and Mahin, S.A.2004.Seismic performance Assessment of Concentrically braced steel Frames.Proc.13th World Conference on Earthquake Eng., Vancouver, BC, Paper No.1639.