Advanced Steel Construction

Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 211-226 (2016)




Y. Chen 1 and Y.B. Shao 2,*

1Graduate student, China Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Building Safety and Energy

Efficiency, College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, China

2Professor, School of Mechatronic Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, China

*(Corresponding author: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Received: 26 June 2012; Revised: 9 September 2012; Accepted: 9 October 2012




View Article   Export Citation: Plain Text | RIS | Endnote


Chord reinforcement is an available alternative to improve the static strength of the welded square tubular joints. Four full-scaled square tubular Y-joints are studied experimentally to investigate the effect of local chord reinforcement on their static strength. From experimental results, it is found that the static strength of a square tubular Y-joint can be improved greatly by increasing the chord thickness locally near the brace/chord intersection. The failure mode of an un-reinforced Y-joint can be changed from local yielding around the brace/chord intersection to flexural yielding of the chord member when the local chord thickness is increased to a critical value. In addition, finite element (FE) models for analyzing the static behavior of square tubular Y-joints are also presented, and the accuracy and reliability of these models have been evaluated by comparing the FE results with experimental results. Finally, influence of some parameters (Lc/dβγ and Tc/t0) on the static strength of square tubular Y-joints with local chord reinforcement is studied, and a parametric equation for predicting the static strength of square tubular Y-joints with local chord reinforcement under axial compression is presented. The accuracy of the presented equation is verified through error analysis.



Square tubular T-joints, chord reinforcement, finite element, static strength, parametric equation


[1]       Ganhi, P., Raghava, G. and Ramachandra Murthy, D.S., “Fatigue Behavior of Internally Ring-stiffened Welded Steel Tubular Joints”, Journal of structural engineering, 2000, Vol. 126, No. 7, pp. 809-815.

[2]       Van der Vegte, G.J., Choo, Y.S., Liang, J.X., Zettlemoyer, N., Liew, J.Y.R., “Static Strength of T-joints Reinforced with Doubler or Collar Plates, II: Numerical Simulations”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 2005, Vol. 131, No.1, pp. 129-138.

[3]       Lee, M.M.K., and Llewelyn-Parry, A., “Strength of Ring-stiffened Tubular T-joints in Offshore Structures—A Numerical Parametric Study”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 1999, Vol. 51, pp. 239–264.

[4]       Nazari, A. Guan, Z., Daniel, W.J.T., Gurgenci, H., “Parametric Study of Hot Spot Stresses around Yubular Joints with Doubler Plates”, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, ASCE, 2007, Vol. 12, No.1, pp. 38-47.

[5]       Choo, Y.S., Liang, J.X., Van der Vegte, G.J., Liew, J.Y.R., “Static Strength of Doubler Plate Reinforced CHS X-joints Loaded by in-plane Bending”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2004, Vol. 60, pp. 1725–1744.

[6]       Shao, Y.B., Yue, Y.S., and Cai, Y.Q., “Experimental Study on Hysteretic Behavior of Circular Tubular T-joints Reinforced with Collar-plate”, Engineering Mechanics, 2011, Vol. 28, No.10, pp. 209-215.

[7]       Gao, J., Su, J.Z., Xia, Y., Chen, B.C., “Experimental Study of Concrete-filled Steel Tubular Arches with Corrugated Steel Webs”, Advanced Steel Construction, 2014, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 99-115.

[8]       Shao, Y.B., Li, T., Seng, T. L., Chiew S.P., “Hysteretic Behavior of Square Tubular T-joints with Chord Reinforcement under Axial Cyclic Loading”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2011, Vol. 67, No.1, pp. 140-149.

[9]       Shao, Y.B., Lie, S.T., and Chiew S.P., “Static Strength of Tubular T-joints with Reinforced Chord under Axial Compression”, Advances in Structural Engineering, 2010, Vol. 13 No.2, pp. 369-377.

[10]     Moffat, D.G., Hsieh, M.F., and Lynch, M., “An Assessment of ASME III and CEN TC54 Methods of Determining Plastic and Limit Loads for Pressure System Components”, Journal of Strain Analysis, 2001, Vol. 36 No. 3, pp. 301-312.

[11]     Zhao, X.L., “Deformation Limit and Ultimate Strength of Welded T-joints in Cold-formed RHS Sections”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2000, Vol. 53, pp. 149-165.

[12]     CIDECT, “Design Guide 3: For Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Joints under Predominantly Static Loading”, Second Edition. 2009.