Advanced Steel Construction

Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 62-77 (2017)





Barış Sevim*, Serkan Bekiroglu and Güray Arslan

Yıldız Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, 34220, İstanbul, Turkey  

*(Corresponding author: E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Received: 11 November 2015; Revised: 23 March 2016; Accepted: 26 March 2016




View Article   Export Citation: Plain Text | RIS | Endnote


The collapse of scaffolds can bring about substantial damage and economic loss. In recent years, over hundreds of people died and an even greater number have been injured because of inadequate scaffolding system designs. In this study, the effects of truss height and number of tie bars on the structural behavior of suspended scaffolding systems were experimentally investigated. Three full-scale scaffolding systems with truss heights of 30, 45, and 60 cm were tested in the laboratory. Each system included a wooden floor, steel purlins and trusses. The number of steel tie bars connected to the systems was also varied. A load transmission system was placed in these experimental systems to distribute single loads to the center of a specific area in a step-by-step manner using a load jack. After each load increment, the displacement was measured by means of linear variable differential transducers placed at critical points of the wooden floor, purlins, and trusses. This test was repeated for all systems and under all system conditions. The test results revealed that displacement increased exponentially in scaffolds with truss heights of 30, 45, and 60 cm without tie bars. Under the same load, systems with truss heights of 60, 45, and 30 cm revealed displacements of 8.8, 12.1, and 23.3 cm, respectively. The results of this work demonstrate that the number of tie bars and truss height considerably affect the structural behavior of scaffolding systems. Our findings further suggest that a scaffolding system with 60 cm-high truss and two tie bars presents optimal safety and cost-savings.



Laboratory model, Load-displacement curve, Load transmission platform, Suspended scaffolding system, Tie bar effects, Truss height


[1]        Url-1a), 23.02.2016. Url-1b) Suspended_Scaffolding_System_H_frame_scaffolding.html,   23.02.2016.


Url-1d), 23.02.2016.

Url-1e), 23.02.2016.

Url-1f), 23.02.2016. Url-1g),23.02.2016.

[2]        Url-2. 13.09.2015.

[3]        Url-3. 13.09.2015.

[4]        Collins, R., Zhang, S., Kim, K. and Teizer, J., “Integration of Safety Risk Factors in BIM for Scaffolding Construction”, Computing In Civil and Building Engineering 2014, ASCE, doi: 10.1061/9780784413616.039, 2014, pp. 307-314.

[5]        Url-4, oken-warning/. 13.09.2015.

[6]        Peng, J.L., Pan, A.D., Rosowsky, D.V., Chen, W.F., Yen, T. and Chan, S.L., “High Clearance Scaffold Systems during Construction I. Structural Modelling and Modes of Failure”, Engineering Structures, 1996, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 247-257.

[7]        Peng, J.L., Pan, A.D., Rosowsky, D.V., Chen, W.F., Yen, T. and Chan, S.L., “High Clearance Scaffold Systems during Construction II. Structural Analysis and Development of Design Guidelines”, Engineering Structures, 1996, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 258-267.

[8]        Url-5a), 23.02.2016.

Url-5b) wner_fined_342500.html, 23.02.2016.

Url-5c) , 23.02.2016. Url-5d),                      23.02.2016.

Url-5e), 23.02.2016. Url-5f), 23.02.2016.

Url-5g), 23.02.2016.

[9]        Khudeira, S., “Scaffolding: Safety, Design, and Construction Issues”, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, ASCE, 2008, Vol. 13, pp. 109-110.

[10]      Pisheh, Y.P., Shafiei, H.R. and Hatambeigi, M., “A Case Study of Failure due to Inappropriate Usage of Forming Scaffold System”, Forensic Engineering 2009:Pathology of the Built Environment, ASCE, doi:, 2009, pp. 536-545.

[11]      Hill, H.J., Searer, G.R., Dethlefs, R.A., Lewis, J.E. and Paret, T.F., “Designing Suspended Scaffold Structural Support Elements and Lifeline Anchorages in Conformance with Federal OSHA Requirements”, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, ASCE, 2010, Vol. 15, pp. 186-193.

[12]      Lu, C.Y. and Lu, J.L., “Effect of Joint Stiffness on Behavior of Bowl-Scaffold Used in Shanghai-Nanjing High Speed Railway Overpass” ICTE 2011, ASCE,doi:10.1061/41184(419)315, 2011, pp. 1910-1914.

[13]      Rubio-Romero J.C., Rubio, M.C. and García-Hernández, C., “Analysis of Construction Equipment Safety in Temporary Work at Height”, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 2013, pp. 139, 9-14.

[14]      Beale, R.G., “Scaffold research-A Review”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2014, Vol. 98, pp. 188-200.

[15]      Kim, K. and Teizer, J., “Automatic Design and Planning of Scaffolding Systems Using Building Information Modeling”, Advanced Engineering Informatics, 2014, Vol. 28, pp. 66–80.

[16]      Peng, J.L., Yen, T., Kuo, C.C. and Chan, S.L., “Structural Analysis and Modelling of System Scaffolds used in Construction”, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Advances in Steel Structures, Hong Kong, 2009, pp. 1099–108.

[17]      Prabhakaran, U., “Nonlinear Analysis of Scaffolds with Semirigid Connections”, PhD Thesis, UK: Oxford Brookes University, 2009.

[18]      Son, K.S. and Park, J.J., “Structural Analysis of Steel Pipe Scaffolding based on the Tightening Strength of Clamps”, J. Asian Archit. Build Eng., 2009, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 479–85.

[19]      Chandrangsu, T., “Advanced Analysis and Probabilistic-based Design of Support Scaffold Systems”, PhD Thesis, Australia: Sydney University, 2010.

[20]      Chandrangsu, T. and Rasmussen, K.J.R., “Structural Modelling of Support Scaffold Systems”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2011, Vol. 67, No. 5, pp. 866–875.

[21]      Prabhakaran, U., Beale, R.G. and Godley, M.H.R., “Analysis of Scaffolds with Connections Containing Looseness”, Computer and Structures, 2011. Vol. 89, No. 21–22, pp. 1944–55.

[22]      Yue, F. and Yuan, Y., “Design Methods of Integral-lift Tubular Steel Scaffolds for High-rise Building Construction”, Struct. Des. Tall Spec. Build, 2012, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 46–56.

[23]      Zhang, H. and Rasmussen, K.J.R., “System-based Design for Steel Scaffold Structures using Advanced Analysis”, J. Constr. Steel Res. 2013, Vol. 89, pp. 1–8.

[24]      Chandrangsu, T. and Rasmussen, K.J.R., “Full-scale Tests and Advanced Structural Analysis of Formwork Assemblies”, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Advances in Steel Structures, Hong Kong, 2009, pp. 1083–90.

[25]      Liu, H., Zhao, Q., Wang, X., Zhou, T., Wang, D., Liu, J. and Chen, Z., “Experimental and Analytical Studies on the Stability of Structural Steel Tube and Coupler Scaffolds without X-bracing”, Eng. Struct., 2010, Vol. 32, pp. 1003–15.

[26]      Peng, J.L, Wang, P.L., Huang, Y.H. and Tsai, T.C., “Experimental Studies of Load Capacities of Double-layer Shoring Systems”, Adv. Steel Constr. 2010, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 698–721.

[27]      André, J., Beale, R.G. and Baptista, A.M., “Experimental Investigation of Bridge Falsework Cuplok Joints”, VIII Congresso de Construção Metálica e Mista, Guimaráes, Portugal, 2011, pp. II795–804.

[28]      Peng, J.L., Wang, P.L., Chan, S.L. and Huang, C.H., “Load Capacities of Single-layer Shoring Systems — An Experimental Study”, Adv. Struct. Eng., 2012, Vol. 15 No. 8, pp. 1389–410.

[29]      OSHA3150, “A Guide to Scaffold Use in the Construction Industry”, Small Business Safety Management Series, U.S. Department of Labor, 2002.