Advanced Steel Construction

Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 378-398 (2017)


STATIONARY AND TRANSIENT

RESPONSES OF SUSPENSION BRIDGES

TO SPATIALLY VARYING GROUND MOTIONS

INCLUDING SITE RESPONSE EFFECT

 

Süleyman Adanur1, Ahmet Can Altunışık2,*, Kurtuluş Soyluk3 And A. Aydın Dumanoğlu4

1Assoc. Prof. Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, Trabzon, Turkey

2Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, Trabzon, Turkey

3Gazi University, Department of Civil Engineering, Ankara, Turkey

4Canik Başarı University, Department of Civil Engineering, Samsun, Turkey

*(Corresponding author: E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Received: 21 April 2016; Revised: 3 May 2016; Accepted: 12 May 2016

 

DOI:10.18057/IJASC.2017.13.4.4

 

View Article   Export Citation: Plain Text | RIS | Endnote

ABSTRACT

This paper presents an investigation about the stationary and transient analyses of suspension bridges subjected to spatially varying ground motions including the site response effect. The Bosphorus Suspension Bridge, which connects Europe to Asia in Istanbul, Turkey is selected as a numerical example. The spatial variability of ground motions between the support points is taken into consideration with the coherency function, which arises from three sources: incoherence, wave-passage and site-response effects. The Heaviside Modulating Function has been used throughout the study for computing the transient responses. At the end of the study, the results are compared with each other in two groups as homogeneous-heterogeneous and stationary-transient responses. It is observed that the response values obtained for the heterogeneous soil condition cause larger response values than those of the homogeneous soil condition. Also the greater the differences between the soil conditions, the greater the response values. It is also noticed that the stationary response values are larger than those of the transient responses. Based on the obtained results, the stationary assumption can be accepted as satisfactory for the considered ground motion duration.

 

KEYWORDS

Bosphorus suspension bridge; Incoherence effect; Site-response effect; Spatially varying ground motions; Stationary response; Transient response; Wave-passage effect.


REFERENCES

[1] Abdel-Ghaffar, A.M. and Rubin, L.I., ‚‘‘Suspension Bridge Response to Multiple-Support Excitations’’, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 1982, Vol. 108, pp. 419-435.

[2] Abdel-Ghaffar, A.M. and Rubin, L.I., ‚‘‘Vertical Seismic Behaviour of Suspension Bridges’’, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 1983, Vol. 11, pp. 1-19.

[3] Harichandran, R.S. and Wang, W., ‘‘Response of One- and Two-Span Beams to Spatially Varying Seismic Excitation’’, Report to the National Science Foundation, MSU-ENGR-88-002, Michigan State University, Michigan, 1988.

[4] Bilici, Y., Bayraktar, A., Soyluk, K., Hacıefendioglu, K., Ateş, S. and Adanur, S., ‘‘Stochastic Dynamic Response of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Systems to Spatially Varying Earthquake Ground Motions’’, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2009, Vol. 29, pp. 444-458.

[5] Zhang, D.Y., Liu, W., Xie, W.C. and Pandey, M.D., ‘‘Modeling of Spatially Correlated, Site-Reflected, and Nonstationary Ground Motions Compatible with Response Spectrum’’, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2013, Vol. 55, pp. 21-32.

[6] Zembaty, Z., ‘‘Vibrations of Bridge Structure Under Kinematic Wave Excitations’’, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1997, Vol. 123, No. 4, pp. 479-487.

[7] Gao, Y., Wu, Y., Li, D., Liu, H. and Zhang, N., ‘‘An Improved Approximation for the Spectral Representation Method in the Simulation of Spatially Varying Ground Motions”, Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 2012, Vol. 29, pp. 7-15.

[8] Li, B. and Chouw, N., “Experimental Investigation ff Inelastic Bridge Response Under Spatially Varying Excitations with Pounding”, Engineering Structures, 2014, Vol. 79, pp. 106-116.

[9] Der, Kiureghian, A. and Neuenhofer, A., “A Response Spectrum Method for Multiple-Support Seismic Excitations”, Report No. UCB/EERC-91/08, Berkeley (CA), Earthquake Engineering Research Center, College of Engineering, University of California, 1991.

[10] Nakamura, Y., Der, Kiureghian, A. and Liu, D., “Multiple-Support Response Spectrum Analysis of the Golden Gate Bridge”, Report No. UCB/EERC-93/05, Berkeley (CA), Earthquake Engineering Research Center, College of Engineering, University of California, 1993.

[11] Der, Kiureghian, A., Keshishian, P. and Hakobian, A., “Multiple Support Response Spectrum Analysis of Bridges Including the Site-Response Effect and MSRS Code”, Report No. UCB/EERC-97/02, Berkeley (CA), Earthquake Engineering Research Center, College of Engineering, University of California, 1997.

[12] Rassem, M., Ghobarah, A. and Heidebrecht, A.C., ‚‘‘Site Effects on the Seismic Response of a Suspension Bridge”, Engineering Structures, 1996, Vol. 18, pp. 363-370.

[13] Allam, S.M., and Datta, T.K., “Seismic Behaviour of Cable-Stayed Bridges Under Multi-Component Random Ground Motion”, Engineering Structures, 1999, Vol. 22, pp. 62-74.

[14] Allam, S.M. and Datta, T.K., “Analysis of Cable-Stayed Bridges Under Multi-Component Random Ground Motion By Response Spectrum Method”, Engineering Structures, 2000, Vol. 22, pp. 1367-1377.

[15] Soyluk, K. and Sıcacık, E.A., “Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Cable-Stayed Bridges for Spatially Varying Ground Motion Components”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2012, Vol. 35, pp. 80-90.

[16] Ateş, Ş., Soyluk, K., Dumanoglu, A.A. and Bayraktar, A., “Earthquake Response of Isolated Cable-Stayed Bridges Under Spatially Varying Ground Motions”, Structural Engineering and Mechanics, 2009, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 639-662.

[17] Zhang, Y.H., Li, Q.S., Lin, J.H. and Williams, F.W., “Random Vibration Analysis of Long-Span Structures Subjected to Spatially Varying Ground Motions”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2009, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp.620-629.

[18] Hawwari, A.R., “Suspension Bridge Response to Spatially Varying Ground Motion”, Ph.D. Thesis, Michigan State University, Michigan, 1992.

[19] Harichandran, R.S., Hawwari, A. and Sweiden, B.N., “Response of Long-Span Bridges to Spatially Varying Ground Motion”, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1996, Vol. 122, No. 5, pp. 476-484.

[20] Adanur, S., Dumanoglu, A.A. and Soyluk, K., “Stochastic Analyses of Suspension Bridges: Stationary and Transient”, In: Grundmann, Schueller, editors. Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2002. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema; 2002.

[21] Jia, H.Y., Zhang, D.Y., Zheng, S.X., Xie, W.C. and Pandey, M.D., Local Site Effects on a High-Pier Railway Bridge Under Tridirectional Spatial Excitations: Nonstationary Stochastic Analysis, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2013, Vol. 52, pp. 55-69.

[22] Soyluk, K. and Dumanoglu, A.A., ‚‘‘Spatial Variability Effects of Ground Motions on Cable-Stayed Bridges”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 2004, Vol. 24, pp. 241-250.

[23] Perotti, F., “Structural Response to Nonstationary Multiple-Support Random Excitation”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 1990, Vol. 19, pp. 513-527.

[24] Hyun, C.H., Yun, C.B. and Lee, D.G., “Nonstationary Response Analysis of Suspension Bridges for Multiple Support Excitations”, Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 1992, Vol. 7, pp. 27-35.

[25] Der, Kiureghian, A., “A Coherency Model for Spatially Varying Ground Motions”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 1996, Vol. 25, pp. 99-111.

[26] Harichandran, R.S. and Vanmarcke, .EH., ‘‘Stochastic Variation of Earthquake Ground Motion in Space and Time”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 1986, Vol. 112, No. 2, pp. 154-174.

[27] Clough, R.W. and Penzien, J., “Dynamics of Structures”, Second Edition, Singapore: McGraw Hill, Inc., 1993.

[28] Brown, W.C. and Parsons, M.F., “Bosphorus Bridge, Part I: History of Design”, Proc. Instn Civ. Engrs, 1975, Vol. 58, pp. 505-532.