Advanced Steel Construction

Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 22-36(2018)




Jin Zhang1,*, Yi-Xiang Xu2, Xiao-Jing Yang1 and Dong-Hao Zhang1

1 Key Laboratory of Concrete and Pre-stressed Concrete Structures of 

the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing, China

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Strathclyde University, Glasgow, UK

*(Corresponding author: E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Received: 12 June 2016; Revised: 13 February 2017; Accepted: 14 February 2017




View Article   Export Citation: Plain Text | RIS | Endnote


This study presents an analytical formula based on differential equations of equilibrium to analyse the behaviour of steel columns with initial lateral displacements in fire. The imperfections of the initial flexure of the steel columns are considered. Yielding of the edge fibres at the middle span of a column subjected to elevated temperature is designated as the failure criterion for the fire resistance of the column. After validating the results of the formula using ANSYS, a numerical application is performed to demonstrate the effects of different parameters on the ultimate load bearing capacity. The formula is then used to predict the axial force of axially restrained steel columns based on the displacement coordination condition; then, the axial force is verified by ANSYS. The axial displacement predictions from the proposed method correspond well with those obtained through the finite element method. The critical temperature can also be predicted by calculating the load bearing capacity and axial force at a certain temperature. The results show that the increase of initial lateral displacement and temperature decreases the bearing capacity of the steel column and that the critical temperature decreases with increasing constraint stiffness.



Steel column, fire resistance, initial lateral displacement, load bearing capacity, critical temperature


[1]       Shepherd, P.G. and Burgess, I.W., “On the Buckling of Axially Restrained Steel Columns in Fire”, Engineering Structures, 2011,Vol.33, pp. 2832-2838.

[2]       Young, B. and Ellobody, E., “Performance of Axially Restrained Concrete Encased Steel Composite Columns at Elevated Temperatures”, Engineering Structures, 2011, Vol. 33, pp. 245-254.

[3]       Li, G.Q. and Zhang, C., “Creep Effect on Buckling of Axially Restrained Steel Columns in Real Fires”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2012, Vol.71, pp.182-188.

[4]       Kwon, I.K. and Kwon, Y.B., “Structural Stability of Fire-resistant Steel (FR490) H-section Columns at Elevated Temperatures”, Steel and Composite Structures, 2014, Vol. 17, No.1, pp.105-121.

[5]       Wang, W.Y. and Li, G.Q., “Fire-resistance Study of Restrained Steel Columns with Partial Damage to Fire Protection”, Fire Safety Journal, 2009, Vol. 44, pp.1088-1094.

[6]       Shahrial, A.M., Muntasir, B.A.H.M., Shahriar, Q., Mahmud, A., Rafi, A.N.M. and Ahmad, R., “Fire Performance Curves for Unprotected HSS Steel Columns”, Steel and Composite Structures, 2013, Vol.15, No.6, pp.705-724.

[7]       Della Corte, G., Landolfo, R. and Mazzolani, F.M., “Post-earthquake Fire Resistance of Moment Resisting Steel Frames”, Fire Safety Journal, 2003,Vol.38, No.7, pp.593-612.

[8]       Della Corte G, De Matteis G, Landolfo R, et al., “Seismic Analysis of MR Steel Frames based on Refined Hysteretic Models of Connections”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2002, Vol. 58 No. 10, pp. 1331-1345.

[9]       Mohmmad, H.Y., “Post-Earthquake Fire Performance of Building Structures”, Concordia University Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2008.

[10]     Ji, L., Zhao, J.H., Zhai, Y. and Li, X.Z., “Effect of Axial Restraint on Fire Resistance Performance of Steel Column”, Journal of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 2006, Vol. 23, No.4, pp. 64-69.

[11]     Li, G.Q. and Guo, S.X., “Experiment on Restrained Steel Beams subjected to Heating and Cooling”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2008, Vol.64, pp.268-274.

[12]     Liu, T.C.H., Fahad, M.K. and Davies, J.M., “Experimental Investigation of Behaviour of Axially Restrained Steel Beams in Fire”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2002, Vol. 58, pp. 1211-1230.

[13]     Rodrigues, J.P.C., Neves, I.C. and Valente, J.C., “Experimental Research on the Critical Temperature of Compressed Steel Elements with Restrained Thermal Elonga- Tion”, Fire Safety Journal, 2000, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 77-98.

[14]     Huang, Z.F. and Tan, K.H., “Analytical Fire Resistance of Axially Restrained Steel Columns”, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 2003, Vol. 129, No. 11, pp.1531-1537.

[15]     Li, G.Q. and Guo, S.X., “Analysis of Restrained Heated Steel Beams during Cooling Phase”, Steel and Composite Structures, 2009, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 191-108.

[16]     Ellobody, E. and Young, B., “Investigation of Concrete Encased Steel Composite Columns at Elevated Temperatures”, Thin-Walled Structures, 2010, Vol. 48, pp. 597-608.

[17]     Wang, Y.C. and Davies, J.M., “Fire Tests of Non-sway Loaded and Rotationally Restrained Steel Column Assemblies”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2003, Vol. 59, No.3, pp. 359-383.

[18]     Chinese Technical Code on Fire Safety of Steel Building Structures. (CECS200-2006), Beijing (in Chinese), 2006.