Advanced Steel Construction

Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 267-273 (2019)




Qi-Jian Wu 1, 2, Xu-Dong Zhi 1, 2, * and Meng-Hui Guo 1, 2

1 Key Lab of Structures Dynamic Behavior and Control of the Ministry of Education, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China

2 Key Lab of Smart Prevention and Mitigation of Civil Engineering Disasters of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technol ogy, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China

* (Corresponding author: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Received: 18 September 2018; Revised: 27 February 2019; Accepted: 6 March 2019




View Article   Export Citation: Plain Text | RIS | Endnote


This study proposed a finite element simulation method to analyze the progressive failure of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforced steel component under low-velocity impact. In this method, the Johnson-Cook model and fracture criterion were used to consider the strain rate effect of steel; additionally, a VUMAT subroutine was proposed to discuss the 6 initial failure modes (fiber tension/compression failure, matrix tension/compression failure and in-layer tension/compression delamination failure) and damage evolution of FRP. In order to verify the simulation results, a series of axial low-velocity impact tests on GFRP-reinforced circular steel tube were performed, the comparative study confirmed that the simulations were in good agreement with the test results. Besides, the advantages of proposed VUMAT subroutine were made obviously by comparing to the Puck criterion, the Hashin criterion, and the Chang-Chang criterion.



FRP-reinforced steel component, Low-velocity impact, Simulation, Progress failure, Damage mechanics


[1] Siromani D., Henderson G., Mikita D., et al. “An experimental study on the effect of failure trigger mechanisms on the energy absorption capability of CFRP tubes under axial compression”, Composites: Part A, 64, 25-35, 2014.

[2] Song H.W., Wan Z.M., Xie Z.M. and Du X.W., “Axial impact behavior and energy absorption efficiency of composite wrapped metal tubes”, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 24, 385-401, 2000.

[3] Bambach, M.R., “Axial capacity and crushing of thin-walled metal, fibre–epoxy and composite metal–fibre tubes”, Thin-walled structures, 48, 440-452, 2010.

[4] Harries Kent A., Peck Andrew J. and Abraham Elizabeth J., “Enhancing stability of structural steel sections using FRP”, Thin-walled structures, 47, 1092-1101, 2009.

[5] Johnson G.R. and Cook W.H., “A Constitutive Model and Data for Metals Subjected to Large Strains, High Strain Rates and High Temperatures”, Proceedings of the seventh international symposium on ballistics, 541-7, 1983.

[6] Johnson G.R. and Cook W.H., Fracture characteristics of three metals subjected to various strains, strain rates, temperatures and pressures”, Eng. Fract. Mech., 21, 31–48, 1985.

[7] Lin L., Fan F. and Zhi X.D., “Dynamic constitutive relation and fracture model of Q235A steel”, Appl. Mech. Mater., 274, 463-6, 2013.

[8] Senthil K., Iqbal M.A., Chandel P.S., et al., “Study of the Constitutive Behavior of 7075-T651 Aluminum Alloy”, Int. J. Impact Eng., 108, 171-90, 2017.

[9] Wang X. and Shi J., “Validation of Johnson-Cook plasticity and damage model using impact experiment”, Int. J. Impact Eng., 60, 67-75, 2013.

[10] Hashin Z., “Failure criterion for unidirectional fiber composite”, J. Appl. Mech., 47, 329-34, 1980.

[11] Chang F.K. and Chang K.Y., “A progressive damage model for laminated composites containing stress concentrations”, J. Compos. Mater”, 21(2), 834-55, 1987.

[12] Puck A. and Schürmann H., “Failure analysis of FRP laminates by means of physically based phenomenological models”, Compos. Sci. Technol., 42, 1633-62, 2002.

[13] Lee C.S., Kim J.H., Kim S.K., et al., “Initial and progressive failure analyses for composite laminates using Puck failure criterion and damage-coupled finite element method. Composite Structures”, 121, 406-419, 2015.

[14] Singh H., Mahajan P. and Namala K.K., “A Progressive Failure Study of E-glass Epoxy Composite in Case of Low Velocity Impact”, Advances in Structural Engineering, 273-300, 2015.

[15] Liu P.F., Liao B.B., Jia L.Y., et al. “Finite element analysis of dynamic progressive failure of carbon fiber composite laminates under low velocity impact”, Composite Structures,149, 408-422, 2016.

[16] Liao B.B. and Liu P.F., “Finite element analysis of dynamic progressive failure of plastic composite laminates under low velocity impact”, Composite Structures, 159, 567-578, 2017.

[17] Shi Y., Swait T. and Soutis C., “Modelling damage evolution in composite laminates subjected to low velocity impact”, Composite Structures, 94, 2902-2913, 2012.

[18] Singh H., Namala K.K. and Mahajan P.A. “Damage evolution study of E-glass/epoxy composite under low velocity impact”, Composites: Part B, 76, 235-248, 2015.

[19] Huang C.H. and Lee Y.J., “Experiments and simulation of the static contact crush of composite laminated plates”, Composite Structures, 61, 265-70, 2003.

[20] ABAQUS I. ABAQUS 6.11 User’s manual, 2011.

[21] Camanho P.P. and Davila C.G., “Mixed-mode decohesion finite elements for the simulation of delamination in composite materials”, Tech Rep NASA/TM-2002-211737, 2002.

[22] Zhi X.D., Wu Q.J. and Wang C., “Experimental and numerical study of GFRP-reinforced steel tube under axial impact loads”, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 122, 23-37, 2018.

[23] Perillo, G., Vedivik, N.P. and Echtermeyer, A.T., “Damage development in stitch bonded GFRP composite plates under low velocity impact: Experimental and numerical results”, Composite materials, 49(5), 601-615 2015.