Advanced Steel Construction

Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 137-145 (2020)




Luís Simões da Silva *, Sara Oliveira, Ricardo Costa and Filippo Gentili

ISISE, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Coimbra, Portugal

* (Corresponding author: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Received: 18 March 2020; Revised: 18 March 2020; Accepted: 18 March 2020




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This paper discusses the analysis and design of steel structures using 3D structural models and incorporating the 3D behaviour of the joints. Firstly, the implications of the 3D behaviour of the joints are discussed at the joint level, leading to the need to develop 3D component models. Subsequently, at the frame level, a 3D joint macro-element is presented that encapsulates the behaviour of the joints at each node while maintaining compatibility with the global degrees of freedom of beam elements. Finally, an example is shown for a simple 3D framed structure.



Steel, Stability, 3D joints, Eurocode 3, Macro-elements, OpenSees


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