Advanced Steel Construction

Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 607-627(2007)



Lucjan Ślęczka and Aleksander Kozłowski

Rzeszów University of Technology, Department of Building Structures, W. Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

Fax.: +48-17-8542974

(Corresponding author: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Received: 16 November 2006; Revised: 24 January 2007; Accepted: 5 February 2007




View Article   Export Citation: Plain Text | RIS | Endnote


Steel storage pallet racks are three-dimensional framed structures, similar to multi-storey building structures. They are widely used for the storage of different types of materials. To provide the easy accessibility to stored products, pallet racks are not braced in down-aisle direction. The only source of the stiffness required for down-aisle stability is the stiffness of the connections between columns and beams, and the stiffness of the column bases. Connections between columns and beams are realized by means of different types of mechanical devices (tabs, hooks etc) without the need of using bolts and welds. Such joints have non-linear  φ − M characteristic. Most of the recent design codes and papers recommend experimental tests of beam-to-column connections to obtain semi-rigid joint characteristics that can be applied in the global analysis. The aim of this paper is to present application of the component method to assess main joint properties, i.e. the moment resistance and initial stiffness of storage rack joints. Results obtained using developed model are compared with the test results.



Storage pallet racks, component method, semi-rigid connection, experimental tests


[1]     Abdel-Jaber, M., Beale, R.G., Godley, M.H.R, “Numerical Study on Semi-rigid Racking Frames under Sway”, Computers and Structures, 2005, Vol. 83, pp. 2463–2475.

[2]     Beale, R.G., Godley, M.H.R., “Sway Analysis of Spliced Pallet Rack Structures”, Computers and Structures, 2004, Vol. 82, pp. 2145–2156.

[3]     Bernuzzi, C., Castiglioni, C.A., “Experimental Analysis on the Cyclic Behaviour of Beam-to-column Joints in Steel Storage Pallet Racks”, Thin-Walled Structures, 2001, Vol. 39, pp. 841–859.

[4]     Freitas, A.M.S., Freitas, M.S.R., Souza, F.T., “Analysis of Steel Storage Rack Columns”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 2005, Vol. 61, No. 1135–1146.

[5]     Godley, M.H.R., Beale, R.G., Feng, X., “Analysis and Design of Down-aisle Pallet Rack Structures”, Computers and Structures, 2000, Vol. 77, pp. 391-401.

[6]     Peköz, T., Rao, K., “Design of Industrial Storage Racks”, Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials, 2001, Vol. 3, pp. 28-35.

[7]     The, L.H., Hancock, G.J., Clarke, M.J., “Analysis and Design of Double-Sided High-Rise Steel Pallet Rack Frames”, Journal of Structural Engineering, July 1 2004, Vol. 130, No. 7, pp. 1011-1021.

[8]     Baldassino, N., Zandonini, R., “Design by Testing of Steel Storage Pallet Racks”, Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Steel Structures, Coimbra, 2002, Vol. 1, pp. 689-698.

[9]     Baldassino, N., Bernuzzi, C., “Analysis and Behaviour of Steel Storage Pallet Racks”, Thin-Walled Structures, 2000, Vol. 37, pp. 277–304.

[10]   Markazi, F.D., Beale, R.G., Godley, M.H.R., “Experimental Analysis of Semi-Rigid Boltless Connectors”, Thin-Walled Structures, 1997, Vol. 28, No.1, pp. 57-87.

[11]   Markazi, F.D., Beale, R.G., Godley, M.H.R., “Numerical Modelling of Semi-rigid Boltless Connectors”, Computers and Structures, 2001, Vol. 79, pp. 2391-2402.

[12]   Institute of Logistics and Warehousing, “Safety of Storage Systems. Freestanding Racks. Basic requirements”, IL-B-001:1998 (in Polish).

[13]   Kozłowski, A., Ślęczka, L., “Experimental Analysis of Beam-to-column Joints in Steel Storage Pallet Racks”, Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Steel Structures, Coimbra, 2002, Vol. II, pp. 897-906.

[14]   EN 1993-1-8, Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures - Part 1.8: Design of Joints. CEN, Brussels, 2005.

[15]   EN 1994-1-1. Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures. Part 1.1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings. CEN, Brussels, 2002. [16] Fink, J., Rubin, D., Hollmann, K., “Anwendung des Innsbrucker Komponentenmodells bei der Optimierung eines modernen Deckenschaltischs“, Stahlbau 72, 2003, Heft 1.

[17]   Chen, W.F., Newlin, D.E., “Column Web Strength of Beam-to-Column Connections”, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 1973, Vol. 99, No. ST9. [18] Faella, C., Piluso, V., Rizzano, G., “Structural Steel Semi rigid Connections, Theory, Design and Software”, CRC Press, 2000.

[19]   Benjamin, J. R., “Statically Indeterminate Structures”, McGRAW-HILL, 1959.