Advanced Steel Construction

Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 85-104 (2005)




H.X. Yu and J.Y. Richard Liew*

* Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Singapore,

BLK E1A, 1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 11757.

Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.




View Article   Export Citation: Plain Text | RIS | Endnote


Design of public infrastructure against terrorist attack has become a rising concern to reduce the level of damage to properties and the loss of life. Some of the terrorist acts take the form of blast followed by fire causing catastrophic failure of the structure. This two-part paper aims to study the response of steel framed structures subjected to the combined effect of blast and fire. In Part 1 of the companion paper, an overview is made on the methods for determining the blast load and finite element techniques for dynamic and impulsive analysis. In this paper, a typical five-storey steel framed building with concrete slab system and external masonry cladding, subjecting to mid-scale bomb and then followed by fire, is analyzed using a dynamic analysis software, LS-DYNA. A sequential procedure for a dynamic blast-fire analysis is proposed. The effect of blast on active and passive fire protection systems is assessed. The local and lateral-torsional buckling failure modes associated with members subjected to the combined effect of blast and fire are identified in contrast with the failure modes predicted based on fire analysis alone. Collapse analysis showed that blast load could affect on the performance of passive and active fire protection system, and the blast damaged structure possesses very little resistance to fire.



blast, collapse, fire, dynamic analysis, steel frame, strain rate effect, temperature


[1] European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Draft prEn 1991-1-2, Eurocode 1: Basis of Design and Actions on Structures, Part 1.2: Actions on Structures- Actions on Structures exposed to Fire. British Standards Institution, London; 2001.

[2] BSI. BS5950 Structural Use of Steelwork in Building: Part 1.Code of Practice for DesignRolled and Welded Sections. British Standards Institution, London, UK; 2003.

[3] Liew JYR, Ma KY. Advanced Analysis of Steel Framework Exposed to Accidental Fire. Second International Workshop. Structures in Fire, Christchruch, 2002:303-318.

[4] European Committee for Standardization (CEN). DD ENV 1993-1-2, Eurocode 3: design of steel structures, Part 1.2, General rules- structural fire design. British Standards Institution, UK; 2001.

[5] Soroushian P, Choi KB. Steel Mechanical properties at Different Strain Rates. Journal of Structural Engineering 1987;113(4):663-671.

[6] TM5-1300. Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions. US Army Manual, November, 1990.

[7] Makovicha D, Makovicka Jr D. Failure of masonry under explosion effect. Structures under Shock and Impact VIII. Southampton, Boston: WIT Press, 2004:475-484.

[8] Grote DL, Park SW, Zhou M. Dynamic behavior of concrete at high strain rates and pressures: I. experimental characterization. International Journal of Impact Engineering 2001;25: 869-886.

[9] Bangash MYH. Prototype Building Structures: Analysis and Design. London: Thomas Telford, 1999.